Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society
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WESTERN CIVILIZATION, Tenth Edition, maintains a firm grounding in political history, while covering intellectual history (particularly the significance of ideas and contributions) to greater and deeper extent than any other text for the course. Known for its accessible writing style, this text appeals to students and instructors alike for its brevity, clarity, and careful selection of content including its enhanced focus on religion and philosophy. Updated with more recent scholarship, the Tenth edition retains many popular features, including comparative timelines, full-color art essays, profiles, and primary source boxes in each chapter. New technology resources (available separately), including CourseMate with interactive eBook, make learning more engaging and bring history concepts to life.
general assembles the troops and calls forward those he considers to have shown exceptional courage. He praises them first for their gallantry in action and for anything in their 138 previous conduct which is particularly worthy of mention, and then he distributes gifts such as the following: to a man who has wounded one of the enemy, a spear; to one who has killed and stripped an enemy, a cup if he is in the infantry, or horse-trappings if in the cavalry—originally the gift was simply a lance.
military monarchy with republican institutions: he held absolute power without abruptly breaking with a republican past. Magistrates were still elected, and assemblies still met; the Senate administered certain provinces, retained its treasury, and was invited to advise Octavian. With some truth, Octavian could claim that he ruled in partnership with the Senate. By maintaining the facade of the Republic, Octavian camouflaged his absolute power and contained senatorial opposition, which already
conquests? Did the break stem essentially from the vision of a great prophet? But the most significant historical questions concerning Akhenaton are these: First, was Akhenaton’s religion genuine monotheism, which pushed religious thought in a new direction? And second, if this was the case, did it influence Moses, who led the Israelites out of Egypt about a century later? These two questions have aroused controversy among historians. The principal limitation on the monotheistic character of
extending their dominion over much of the Israelite territory. During this time of crisis, the twelve tribes united under the leadership of Saul, a charismatic hero, whom they acclaimed as their first king. Under Saul’s successor, David, a gifted warrior and a poet, the Hebrews (or Israelites) broke the back of Philistine power and subdued neighboring peoples. The creation of an Israelite kingdom under David and his son Solomon in the tenth century b.c. was made possible by the declining power of
fighting bravely for their city. The Spartans were trained in the arts of war and indoctrinated to serve the state. Military training for Spartan boys began at age seven; they exercised, drilled, competed, and endured physical hardships. Other Greeks admired the Spartans for their courage, obedience to law, and achievement in molding themselves according to an ideal. Spartan soldiers were better trained and disciplined and were more physically fit than other Greeks. But the Spartans were also