Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications (6th Edition; Pearson New International Edition)
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For undergraduate/graduate courses in Theories of Development, Child Development, Child Psychology, Human Development, and Lifespan Development.
The result of extensive scholarship and consultation with leading scholars, this classic text introduces students to twenty-four theorists and compares and contrasts their theories on how we develop as individuals. Emphasizing the theories that build upon the developmental tradition established by Rousseau, this text also covers theories in the environmental/learning tradition.
will rush back if he or she is frightened by some event, such as a loud noise. In these circumstances the child will want close physical contact and may require a good deal of comforting before he or she will venture away from the mother once again (Bowlby, 1988, p. 62; 1982, pp. 257–259, 373). 54 Ethological Theories FIGURE 5 An 8-month-old baby struggles to follow her mother. By the end of the first year, an important variable is the child’s general working model of the attachment figure.
than it does to us. When we walk, we have a destination in mind; we wish to get somewhere. The toddler, in contrast, walks for the sake of walking. For example, the child may walk up and down the staircase, over and over. The child does not walk to get somewhere, but to “perfect his own functions, and consequently his goal is something creative within himself” (p. 78). The Sensitive Period for Language A fifth sensitive period—and perhaps the most remarkable one of all— involves the acquisition
permitted to abuse the materials or their classmates. 84 Montessori’s Educational Philosophy In the Montessori school, respect for the materials and for others usually develops quite naturally. The children know how important the work is for themselves, so they respect the work of the other children. If they do bother a child who is in deep concentration, the child usually insists on being left alone in such a way that they automatically respect this wish. Sometimes, though, the teacher must
Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 119 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION In all psychology, few theorists are as important as Jean Piaget (1896–1980), who forged the single-most comprehensive and compelling theory of intellectual development. Piaget was born in Neuchâtel, a small college town in Switzerland where his father was a medieval historian at the university. Piaget (1952) described his father as a careful and systematic thinker. His
with moral thinking, not moral action. In many situations, we might have a clear idea about what is right, but we might not act accordingly. We might put self-interest first; or we might feel our action will be futile; or we might lack the courage of our moral convictions. Consequently, we would not expect perfect correlations between moral judgment and moral action. Still, Kohlberg thought there should be some relationship. As a general hypothesis, he proposed that moral behavior is more