The Science of Addiction: From Neurobiology to Treatment (Norton Professional Books (Hardcover))
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Runner-up winner of the Hamilton Book Author Award, this book is a comprehensive overview of the neurobiology behind addictions.
Neuroscience is clarifying the causes of compulsive alcohol and drug use––while also shedding light on what addiction is, what it is not, and how it can best be treated––in exciting and innovative ways. Current neurobiological research complements and enhances the approaches to addiction traditionally taken in social work and psychology. However, this important research is generally not presented in a forthright, jargon-free way that clearly illustrates its relevance to addiction professionals.
The Science of Addiction presents a comprehensive overview of the roles that brain function and genetics play in addiction. It explains in an easy-to-understand way changes in the terminology and characterization of addiction that are emerging based upon new neurobiological research. The author goes on to describe the neuroanatomy and function of brain reward sites, and the genetics of alcohol and other drug dependence. Chapters on the basic pharmacology of stimulants and depressants, alcohol, and other drugs illustrate the specific and unique ways in which the brain and the central nervous system interact with, and are affected by, each of these substances
Erickson discusses current and emerging treatments for chemical dependence, and how neuroscience helps us understand the way they work. The intent is to encourage an understanding of the body-mind connection. The busy clinical practitioner will find the chapter on how to read and interpret new research findings on the neurobiological basis of addiction useful and illuminating.
This book will help the almost 21.6 million Americans, and millions more worldwide, who abuse or are dependent on drugs by teaching their caregivers (or them) about the latest addiction science research. It is also intended to help addiction professionals understand the foundations and applications of neuroscience, so that they will be able to better empathize with their patients and apply the science to principles of treatment.
of comorbidity: Depression and drug abuse. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 714–717. Volkow, N. D. (2004b). Expectation and brain function in drug abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 621. Volkow, N. D., Fowler, J. S., & Wang, G.-J. (2003). The addicted human brain: Insights from imaging studies. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111, 1444–1451. Volkow, N. D., Fowler, J. S., Wang, G.-J., & Goldstein, R. Z. (2002). Role of dopamine, the frontal cortex and memory circuits in drug addiction:
Sensitization, later in this chapter), “liking” is associated with the pleasurable effects of a drug, whereas “wanting” is related to the urge or craving to take the drug. On the other hand, “needing” suggests that the body (more specifically, the hypothalamus of the brain) demands or requires the drug to function normally, in a manner similar to the body’s instinctual need for sex, water, and air. This makes sense when we understand that one of the anatomical relationships of the MDS involves
by volume), or one cocktail containing 1.5 ounces of 80 proof (40% by volume) spirits. All of these contain roughly 14 grams (about one-half ounce) of absolute alcohol. Beverage serving sizes vary, and beers and wines vary by alcohol content. For example, the average alcohol content for most beers (12 ounces) is 4.75–4.9%; for light beers, it is about 3.8% by volume. If a 150-pound man drinks one BU in an hour, this will produce a BAC of about 0.025%, excluding any calculation for liver
pharmacological action of intoxication. Generally, most evidence indicates that ethanol (beverage alcohol) binds to hydrophobic (lacking affinity for water) pockets of proteins, altering their function by changing their three-dimensional structure. Proteins that are particularly sensitive to this effect include ion-channels, neurotransmitter receptors, and enzymes (Chapter 2) involved in changing the receptor signal to a nerve impulse. This leads to much of the intoxicating effects of ethanol.
drinking without professional help or a 12-step program. At the same time, people with alcohol dependence often do need to be mandated into treatment, which may include threat of loss of employment, incarceration, or imposed consequences if they fail to comply. There is a complex interaction between drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes. During treatment for alcohol dependence, it is difficult to obtain approval from patients to stop smoking as well. It’s almost as if the addictive process for