The Paradox Of Wealth And Poverty: Mapping The Ethical Dilemmas Of Global Development

The Paradox Of Wealth And Poverty: Mapping The Ethical Dilemmas Of Global Development

Daniel Little

Language: English

Pages: 304

ISBN: 0813316421

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

We live in a time of human paradoxes. Scientific knowledge has reached a level of sophistication that permits understanding of the most arcane phenomena and yet religious fundamentalism dominates in many parts of the world. We witness the emergence of a civil, liberal constitutionalism in many regions of the world and yet ethnic violence threatens the lives and dignity of millions. And we live in a time of rapid economic and technological advance and yet several billions of people live in persistent debilitating poverty. In this book, Daniel Little dissects these paradoxes offering the clearest perspective on how best to approach international development.Using both empirical and philosophical approaches, Little provides a schematic acquaintance with the most important facts about global development at the turn of the twentieth century. In doing so, he explores what appear to be the most relevant moral principles and insights that ought to be invoked as we consider these facts and then draws conclusions about what sorts of values and goals ought to guide economic development in the twenty-first century.

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realization of human rights for men and women. Studies of girls in rural South Asia show that female children have lower nutritional levels and lower levels of education than boys (Dreze and Sen 1995). Women in Brazil are disadvantaged in the labor force and in their right to hold and dispose of property. Women in Mexico are subject to traditional patriarchal limitations on their choices, resulting in significant stifling of the development of their human capabilities (Valdes 1995). Welfare,

Jean Dreze and Amartya Sen ( 1995) document these differences in the case of India and demonstrate the demographic consequences of differential access to even rudimentary health care in the form of the "missing women of Asia." If poor families are somewhat slower to bring a sick daughter to the clinic than a sick son, the consequence will be elevated mortality among daughters. India represents a particularly extreme case, where child mortality for girls is forty-two per thousand, compared to a

singularly important problem, demanding our immediate and sharpest attention for remediation? Why should we place the problem of poverty ahead of other important values in the context of development and modernization, such as providing a dean and safe urban environment, preserving environmental resources, or raising the average standard of living for the whole population? One particularly compelling answer relates to the fundamental value of human well-being. The ultimate value that should drive

the moment of division. Steven Brams offers an account of distributive justice that generalizes on the notion of fair division and rational acceptability of process (Brams and Taylor 1996). More generally, we can identify several important features of institutions that rational agents would demand as a condition of fairness. First, there is an important connection between the conditions of fairness, freedom of choice, and the absence of coercion. An individual is exploited, we Justice 99 may

principle imposes a duty on the state to secure economic arrangements through which full employment is possible and to serve as the employer of last resort. I will consider this point more fully below. Candidates for Universal Human Rights I will now turn to the question of content. Are there specific rights that emerge from consideration of these powerful arguments linking freedom, the human good, and individual rights? What are the relevant individual rightsfor example, a right to bodily

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