The Order of Prepositional Phrases in the Structure of the Clause (Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today)
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For a long time prepositions seemed to enjoy a clandestine status in linguistic research. This has changed with a novel path of inquiry into the inner structure of complex prepositional expressions. In a unique approach to the examination of the outer syntax of prepositions the author uses established and new syntactic and statistical tests to achieve a convincing hierarchy of thematic roles expressed by prepositional phrases. From an antisymmetric point of departure the author presents an overview of possible derivations that result in the observed different word orders of PPs in VO and OV languages. It leads to a refreshing new proposal of how to include morphology into syntax. The plausibility of this model is underscored by a wide range of explanatory data. This book is indispensable for linguists interested in the syntax of modifiers.
in my work as well her suggestions and encouragement. I also want to thank Hubert Haider for giving me the opportunity to spend three months in Salzburg and for the many profound discussions we had about the nature of syntax. His support in establishing valid syntactic test for the order of PPs in German cannot be overestimated. It was also in Salzburg where I met Werner Abraham who showed how much passion can be found in linguistics and who later on contributed in bringing this book into the
together: (German) (3-185) Odysseus eroberte Troja mit Achilles mit Archimedes. “Odysseus conquered Troja with Achilles with Archmides.” (German) (3-186) ? Odysseus eroberte Troja mit Archimedes mit Achilles. “Odysseus conquered Troja with Archimedes with Achilles.” The second sentence, (3-186), becomes odd. If a German speaker would not know, which of the two, Achilles or Archimedes, is the instrument and which is the combatant he would clearly interpret always the first as combatant and the
concentrated on three tests, namely the QS Test, the IF Test and the PLR Test. They proved to be easily applicable to German and to work with most combinations of PP types. With PP types I intend PPs which bear a certain thematic role. In order to give valid results, each test has to result in a linear order. To define an order, the relation between two PPs A and B of different type has to be 1. antisymmetric: no PP type A can be higher than a PP type B and at the same time lower. 2. transitive:
sentence, Cinque proposed an extremely rich structure with a hierarchy of over 30 functional projections above the VP, which might be seen as an extended projection of the verb. Rizzi showed that the sentence part, usually called CP, has a much richer structure than assumed in earlier works. Further research (Koopman) showed that even for prepositions we have to adopt a richer structure to account for many elements that come (optionally?) with prepositions (like degree elements such as “right
superficially non-rigid ordering of morphemes, at least one of these special morphemes is involved. Baker gives several examples from which I present one here. It is from Bemba, a Bantu language: (Bemba) (5-2) Naa-mon-an-ya Mwape na Mutumba. 1SG.PST-see-RECIP-CAUS Mwape and Mutumba “I made Mwape and Mutumba see each other.” (Bemba) (5-3) Mwape na Chilufya baa-mon-eshy-ana Mutumba. Mwape and Chilufya 3pS-see-caus-recip Mutumba “Mwape and Chilufya made each other see Mutumba.” Quechua is a