The Lesser-Known Varieties of English: An Introduction (Studies in English Language)
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This is the first ever volume to compile sociolinguistic and historical information on lesser-known, and relatively ignored, native varieties of English around the world. Exploring areas as diverse as the Pacific, South America, the South Atlantic and West Africa, it shows how these varieties are as much part of the big picture as major varieties and that their analysis is essential for addressing some truly important issues in linguistic theory, such as dialect obsolescence and death, language birth, dialect typology and genetic classification, patterns of diffusion and transplantation and contact-induced language change. It also shows how close interwoven fields such as social history, contact linguistics and variationist sociolinguistics are in accounting for their formation and maintenance, providing a thorough description of the lesser-known varieties of English and their relevance for language spread and change.
grammatical markers in vernacular NLE, among them ’d (‘would’, ‘had’), ’ll (‘will’), ’ve (‘have’) as well as, in past forms, final postconsonantal /t/ and /d/ (as in touch(ed), liv(ed)), as well as the full /əd/ morpheme (yielding such bare past forms as want or start). The overall effect in conservative vernacular NLE resembles the minimal grammatical-marking patterns often noted of creole varieties. The influences of substratal languages on regional varieties of NLE have likewise been barely
Burin corpus). Conclusion Traditional NLE displays perhaps more in common with the conservative regional varieties of southwest England or southeast Ireland than it does with standard Canadian English. In the past fifty years, however, the province has experienced considerable socioeconomic change, which has entailed increasing urbanization and out-migration, particularly on the part of younger generations in small rural communities that over the past two or more centuries have depended for
Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, London: University of Westminster. Holm, John and Alison Shilling. . Dictionary of Bahamian English. Cold Spring, N.Y.: Lexik House. 170 Jeffrey Reaser Kortmann, Bernd, Edgar W. Schneider, Kate Burridge, Rajend Mesthrie and Clive Upton, eds. . A Handbook of Varieties of English: A Multi-Media Resource ( vols.). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. McPhee, Helean. . ‘The grammatical features of TMA auxiliaries in Bahamian Creole.’ In Aceto and
one of the languages mentioned was Kokoy. As a fieldworker interested in undescribed languages, this reference caught my eye and, on the basis of a generous faculty grant from my institution and help offered by Rosalind Burnette, I was able to carry out fieldwork in Kokoy-speaking locations for a few weeks in the summer of . Subsequently, I have encountered two further references in the published literature by Christie (, ) referring to Kokoy or Cocoy (as it is sometimes spelled).
TdCE, finally, had input from (New England) American English and early South African English, as well as from distinct varieties of British English (London, Hull, Devon; the founder of the colony was from the Scottish Lowlands); a number of ESL speakers were present as well (with Dutch, Danish and Italian as first languages). In addition, perhaps the most influential settler group arrived from St Helena in , which entailed that the two varieties share a number of characteristics due to direct