The Germanic Languages (Routledge Language Family Series)

The Germanic Languages (Routledge Language Family Series)

Ekkehard Konig, Johan van der Auwera

Language: English

Pages: 648

ISBN: 0415280796

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

Provides a unique, up-to-date survey of twelve Germanic languages from English and German to Faroese and Yiddish.

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be regarded as a creole of Dutch or not, however, certain sectors of the non-white population speak a variety of Afrikaans called Oorlams, dialects which betray a greater number of creole features than standard Afrikaans. Because most native speakers of Afrikaans are bilingual in English and because the two languages are not geographically separated, the latter is in the process of exerting a tremendous influence on the former. Frisian Modern Frisian exists as three mutually unintelligible

traditions, as in the compound mana-sëps 'world' < 'seed of men'. Such retentions of the earlier culture as well as archaic characteristics in the language support the view that Gothic can be taken as the chief source for reconstructing Proto-Germanic. The other Germanic languages have undergone phonological and morphological changes not found in Gothic. The voiced sibilant /zJ has become a resonant, as in Old High German mëro, Old Icelandic meiri, as opposed to 21 GOTHIC AND THE RECONSTRUCTION

is the Gothic letter which represents the complex consonant [hw]. 23 GOTHIC AND THE RECONSTRUCTION OF PROTO-GERMANIC dentals, as in twài 'two'; the unique form bidagwa 'beggar' is taken as an error. Moreover, they pattern with single consonants, as in the past tense sagq [sarjkw] 'sank', where interpretation as a cluster would require a threeconsonant sequence. Similarly, in the initial cluster of qrammipa 'dampness', which would be unique if taken as /kwr/, though the cluster may be an

the vernacular language recorded in England in the period from c. AD 600 to c. AD 1500. Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the group of dialects imported by the immigrants from the continent in the fourth, fifth and sixth centuries, who drove back the native Romano-Celtic population to Cornwall, Wales and Scotland. The transition to Middle English is usually somewhat artificially marked by the date of the Norman Conquest of England as 1066. For Old English, two main dialect groups are distinguished:

had a considerable amount of parataxis (putting clauses next to each other without connecting them with conjunctions like and or that), which gradually came to be replaced by hypotaxis, appears to be well founded. Noun clauses are introduced by the conjunction pxt: ic wat pœt dis Iudeisce folc micclum blissigan wile mines deades Ί know that this Jewish people will rejoice greatly at my death'. Relative clauses are optionally introduced by the relative conjunction pe, optionally in combination

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