The Cognitive Neurosciences (MIT Press)
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Each edition of this classic reference has proved to be a benchmark in the developing field of cognitive neuroscience. The fourth edition of The Cognitive Neurosciences continues to chart new directions in the study of the biologic underpinnings of complex cognition -- the relationship between the structural and physiological mechanisms of the nervous system and the psychological reality of the mind. The material in this edition is entirely new, with all chapters written specifically for it.
Since the publication of the third edition, the field of cognitive neuroscience has made rapid and dramatic advances; fundamental stances are changing and new ideas are emerging. This edition reflects the vibrancy of the field, with research in development and evolution that finds a dynamic growth pattern becoming specific and fixed, and research in plasticity that sees the neuronal systems always changing; exciting new empirical evidence on attention that also verifies many central tenets of longstanding theories; work that shows the boundaries of the motor system pushed further into cognition; memory research that, paradoxically, provides insight into how humans imagine future events; pioneering theoretical and methodological work in vision; new findings on how genes and experience shape the language faculty; new ideas about how the emotional brain develops and operates; and research on consciousness that ranges from a novel mechanism for how the brain generates the baseline activity necessary to sustain conscious experience to a bold theoretical attempt to make the problem of qualia more tractable.
review). LTP lasting several hours or days (sometimes referred to as L-LTP) requires the synthesis of new proteins, and will gradually decay back to baseline if protein synthesis inhibitors are applied within the ﬁrst couple of hours following conditioning stimulation (Frey, Krug, Reymann, & Matthies, 1988; Krug, Lossner, & Ott, 1984; Stanton & Sarvey, 1984; see Kelleher, Govindarajan, & Tonegawa, 2004, for review). In the case of LTD, small increases in Ca2+ arising from weak synaptic
drug simply reversed preexisting LTP without apparently affecting synaptic transmission or subsequent LTP induction in any other way made it ideal for testing the importance of LTP in long-term memory maintenance. In the study, rats learned to associate a particular area on a rotating platform with a mild foot shock, and acquired a robust avoidance response after just a few training trials. Infusing the PKMζ inhibitor into the hippocampus 24 hours after training eradicated the avoidance response
organization are actually inferences drawn from studies of nonhuman species. What is the scientiﬁc basis for making inferences about human brain organization from the study of nonhuman species? The answer, seemingly, is the principle of evolution, which asserts that there was continuity between the human species and other animals through Earth history. We rightly honor Charles Darwin for having the profound insight that all animals are descended from one (or a few) progenitor species and
functional capacities, as in the case of many parasitic organisms. Yet parasites are arguably just as well adapted to their circumstances as the organisms they infest. Furthermore, evolutionary history has proven to be anything but an unblemished chronicle of progressive improvement: cosmic collisions and tectonic upheavals repeatedly shufﬂed the deck. There is another important transformation in the way evolutionary biologists came to view the history of life, and like the study of adaptation,
Dell’Acqua, 2002; Chierzi, Ratto, Verma, & Fawcett 2005; Taha & Stryker, 2005). The extent to which LTD and LTP are necessary for ocular dominance shifts is uncertain, however. In mice lacking the protein phosphatase, calcineurin, LTD is blocked, but ocular dominance plasticity remains intact (Yang et al., 2005). Although Hebbian mechanisms are likely to contribute to ocular dominance plasticity in which poorly driven synapses from the deprived eye are pruned and synapses from the nondeprived eye