The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology)
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Written by foremost authorities from cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience, the chapters of this reference summarize basic concepts and facts of a major topic, sketch its history, and analyze the progress its research is currently making. The volume also includes work related to developmental, social and clinical psychology, philosophy, economics, artificial intelligence, linguistics, education, law, and medicine. The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning comprises the first comprehensive and authoritative handbook for all core topics within the fields of thinking and reasoning.
probability stays constant, but the probability with which the effect occurs in the absence of the cause increases, causal judgments tend to decrease; in other words, it is contingency that matters A B C D Figure 7.1 . A standard 2 × 2 contingency table. A through D are labels for the frequencies of event types resulting from a factorial combination of the presence and absence of cause c and effect e. (see Rescorla, 1 968, for a parallel demonstration of the role of contingency in rats). As
T. L. (2001 ). Structure learning in human causal induction. In T. K. Leen, T. G. Dietterich, & V. Tresp (Eds.), Advances in neural processing systems (Vol. 1 3 , pp. 5 9–65 ). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Thagard, P. (1 989). Explanatory coherence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1 2 , 43 5 –467. Thagard, P. (2000). Explaining disease: Correlations, causes, and mechanisms. In F. Keil & R. Wilson (Eds.), Cognition and explanation (pp. 227–25 3 ). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Vallacher, R. R., & Wegner,
Aging on Reasoning 3 21 351 Robert J. Sternberg Todd I. Lubart James C. Kaufman Jean E. Pretz 3 71 401 43 1 663 685 Phoebe C. Ellsworth 705 Kevin Dunbar Jonathan Fugelsang 30. Thinking and Reasoning in Medicine 45 7 727 Vimla L. Patel Jos´e F. Arocha Jiajie Zhang 31 . Intelligence 75 1 Robert J. Sternberg 475 32 . Learning to Think: The Challenges of Teaching Thinking Vinod Goel Peter Bachman Tyrone D. Cannon 63 3 p a r t vii THINKING IN PRACTICE 2 9. Scientific Thinking
retinum. Gazelles contain retinum. because the food chain is such that lions eat gazelles and retinum could be transferred in the process. What is striking about this kind of example is the exquisite sensitivity to subtle (if mundane) causal relations that it demonstrates. The necessary causal explanation springs to mind quickly, apparently automatically, and it does so even though it depends on one fact that most people are only dimly aware the problem of induction of (that lions eat
993 ). Feature based induction. Cognitive Psychology, 2 5 , 23 1 –280. Sloman, S. A. (1 994). When explanations compete: The role of explanatory coherence on judgments of likelihood. Cognition, 5 2 , 1 – 21 . Sloman, S. A. (1 998). Categorical inference is not a tree: The myth of inheritance hierarchies. Cognitive Psychology, 3 5 , 1 –3 3 . Sloman, S. A., & Lagnado, D. A. (2004). Causal invariance in reasoning and learning. In B. Ross (Ed.), Handbook of learning and motivation, 44, 287–3 25 .