Summa Theologica (Complete & Unabridged)
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The Summa Theologica (Latin: "Summary of Theology" or "Highest Theology") is the most famous work of Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274). It was intended as a manual for beginners as a compilation of all of the main theological teachings of the time. It summarizes the reasoning of all points of Christian theology, which before the Protestant Reformation subsisted solely in the Roman Catholic Church. The Summa's topics follow a cycle: the existence of God; God's creation, Man; Man's purpose; Christ; the Sacraments; and back to God. It is famous for its five arguments for the existence of God, the Quinquae viae (Latin: five ways). Throughout his work, Aquinas cites Augustine of Hippo, Aristotle, and other Christian, Jewish, Muslim and ancient pagan scholars.
This is an electronic edition of the complete book and includes an author biography. This book features a table of contents linked to every chapter.
like to it in species, or at least in specific sign. Now whatever imports procession or origin in God, belongs to the persons. Hence the name "Image" is a personal name. Reply Obj. 1: Image, properly speaking, means whatever proceeds forth in likeness to another. That to the likeness of which anything proceeds, is properly speaking called the exemplar, and is improperly called the image. Nevertheless Augustine (Fulgentius) uses the name of Image in this sense when he says that the divine nature
_______________________ EIGHTH ARTICLE [I, Q. 63, Art. 8] Whether the Sin of the Highest Angel Was the Cause of the Others Sinning? Objection 1: It would seem that the sin of the highest angel was not the cause of the others sinning. For the cause precedes the effect. But, as Damascene observes (De Fide Orth. ii), they all sinned at one time. Therefore the sin of one was not the cause of the others' sinning. Obj. 2: Further, an angel's first sin can only be pride, as was shown above (A. 2).
of will, they do agree, nevertheless, by their likeness of intellectual nature, according to which they can accept what is manifested by others: thirdly, they know by long experience; not as deriving it from the senses; but when the similitude of their innate intelligible species is completed in individual things, they know some things as present, which they previously did not know would come to pass, as we said when dealing with the knowledge of the angels (Q. 57, A. 3, ad 3).
to understand and to reason, as we have said. Reply Obj. 3: The intellect is compared to the will as moving the will. And therefore there is no need to distinguish in the will an active and a passive will. _______________________ QUESTION 84 HOW THE SOUL WHILE UNITED TO THE BODY UNDERSTANDS CORPOREAL THINGS BENEATH IT (In Eight Articles) Articles We now have to consider the acts of the soul in regard to the intellectual and the appetitive powers: for the other powers of the soul do
accidental change. Now to say that an angel was, or is, or will be, is to be taken in a different sense according to the acceptation of our intellect, which apprehends the angelic existence by comparison with different parts of time. But when we say that an angel is, or was, we suppose something, which being supposed, its opposite is not subject to the divine power. Whereas when we say he will be, we do not as yet suppose anything. Hence, since the existence and non-existence of an angel