Single Neuron Studies of the Human Brain: Probing Cognition
Itzhak Fried, Ueli Rutishauser, Moran Cerf, Gabriel Kreiman
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In the last decade, the synergistic interaction of neurosurgeons, engineers, and neuroscientists, combined with new technologies, has enabled scientists to study the awake, behaving human brain directly.
These developments allow cognitive processes to be characterized at unprecedented resolution: single neuron activity. Direct observation of the human brain has already led to major insights into such aspects of brain function as perception, language, sleep, learning, memory, action, imagery, volition, and consciousness.
In this volume, experts document the successes, challenges, and opportunity in an emerging field. The book presents methodological tutorials, with chapters on such topics as the surgical implantation of electrodes and data analysis techniques; describes novel insights into cognitive functions including memory, decision making, and visual imagery; and discusses insights into diseases such as epilepsy and movement disorders gained from examining single neuron activity.
Finally, contributors consider future challenges, questions that are ripe for investigation, and exciting avenues for translational efforts.
Ralph Adolphs, William S. Anderson, Arjun K. Bansal, Eric J. Behnke, Moran Cerf, Jonathan O. Dostrovsky, Emad N. Eskandar, Tony A. Fields, Itzhak Fried, Hagar Gelbard-Sagiv, C. Rory Goodwin, Clement Hamani, Chris Heller, Mojgan Hodaie, Matthew Howard III, William D. Hutchison, Matias Ison, Hiroto Kawasaki, Christof Koch, Rudiger Kohling, Gabriel Kreiman, Michel Le Van Quyen, Frederick A. Lenz, Andres M. Lozano, Adam N. Mamelak, Clarissa Martinez-Rubio, Florian Mormann, Yuval Nir, George Ojemann, Shaun R. Patel, Sanjay Patra, Linda Philpott, Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, Ian Ross, Ueli Rutishauser, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Erin M. Schuman, Demetrio Sierra-Mercado, Richard J. Staba, Nanthia Suthana, William Sutherling, Travis S. Tierney, Giulio Tononi, Oana Tudusciuc, Charles L. Wilson"
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and well-being are always the dominant and foremost consideration, and thus situations may arise where less than optimal control of the behavioral paradigm can be achieved. A frequent criticism is that these recordings are obtained in patients with neurological disease, and thus the ability to generalize these findings to normal brain physiology may be limited. While this criticism is valid, it should be borne in mind that the epileptogenic focus is not known a priori; thus, several sites need to
Overview of Clinical Electroencephalography The fields of electrophysiology and electroencephalography (EEG) developed from numerous discoveries and scientific achievements that cannot be adequately describe here, and a detailed historical account can be gathered from several publications (Brazier, 1961; Grass, 1984; Niedermeyer, 1993). Nonetheless, it would be useful to first describe briefly the development of clinical EEG and its role in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy where subchronic
code timing following a run. 86 Ueli Rutishauser, Moran Cerf, and Gabriel Kreiman Here are a few typical bottlenecks in real-time experiments: Networking Conducting closed-loop experiments frequently requires using multiple hardware systems (such as for acquisition, data analysis, and stimulus display) that need to exchange large quantities of data among them. This requires a fast and dedicated network among those machines. Additional parameters that affect network congestion and speed
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