Sharks Get Cancer, Mole Rats Don't: How Animals Could Hold the Key to Unlocking Cancer Immunity in Humans
MD James S. Welsh
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This fresh and fascinating exploration of new directions in cancer research focuses on the important role of the immune system in combatting this dread disease. Integrating clues from the animal kingdom, the veterinary clinic, extraordinary human cases, and even embryology, the author—a cancer physician, biologist, and physicist—creates a novel and compelling account of tumor immunology and the promises of immunotherapy.
As the author explains, animals offer us many tantalizing clues about the nature of cancer in humans. Tasmanian devils are on the verge of extinction due to a virulent form of contagious cancer; soft-shelled clams on the East coast of North America are vanishing due to another epidemic of contagious cancer; dogs also contract a contagious cancer but they spontaneously overcome it; and a type of mouse and the homely mole rat are not susceptible to the disease at all.
In humans, there are rare instances of spontaneous cures of advanced cancers induced by radiation. An uncommon form of dwarfism called Laron syndrome confers total cancer immunity on the people who inherit the condition. And recent research suggests that cancer has stolen the secret that shields the embryo against hostile attacks from the mother’s immune system.
The author makes a convincing case that what all of these diverse examples have in common is the immune system and its ability or inability to respond to malignancies. He concludes with a review of the exciting research on the human immune system and the development of new treatments that are inducing the immune system to combat and conquer even the deadliest cancers.
Hobbit,” Scientist, March 4, 2005, http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/23288/title/No-microcephaly-for-Hobbit/ (accessed October 22, 2015). 16. “Hobbit Cave Digs Set to Restart,” BBC News, January 25, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/science/nature/6294101.stm (accessed October 22, 2015). 17. “Hobbits Triumph Tempered by Tragedy,” Sydney Morning Herald, March 5, 2005,
virus (HBV): a DNA virus that can cause hepatitis and liver cancer. Hepatitis C virus (HCV): an RNA virus that can cause hepatitis and liver cancer. Herceptin® (Trastuzumab): a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of certain breast cancers and other cancers that over expresses the HER2 gene. Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC): also known as Lynch syndrome. An inherited cancer predisposition syndrome caused by defects in any of several DNA mismatch repair genes. In addition to
Corpus, 153, 227 co-stimulation, 286–7 coughing, 204 cow, Blossom the, 267 cowpox, 265–7 CR (see: complete resistance) CR/SR mice, 126–7 crab, European edible, 97 cranial capacity, 134 craniometric metrics, 138 Craniosynostosis, 136 cranium, 133, 141 Cretaceous period, 35, 85, 92–4, 118 Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, 85 cretinism, 137, 145, 298 cretinism, endemic, 137 cri du chat syndrome, 136 crocodile, 24, 56 Crohn disease, 252 crown gall disease, 71 cryotherapy, 13, 284
bone, and possibly several others, and needed to be dealt with expeditiously. Before initiating radiotherapy I obtained a bone scan (a nuclear medicine study designed to determine if other bones were involved). If one envisions tumors as tiny light bulbs, Daniel's skeleton lit up like a Broadway marquee. I offered him palliative radiation therapy to relieve his excruciating pain and to reduce the risk of future pathological fracture. By definition, although this palliative treatment might reduce
Africa.” On the other hand, the impact on the cancer patient volunteers was understated, for they were most impressive—in a negative way. Southam selected the West Nile virus since cases in Africa were known to only cause a brief, mild fever. But that was the situation in healthy African individuals; in this population of immunologically weakened, advanced-cancer patients, things panned out quite differently. A few folks became seriously ill with full-blown West Nile encephalitis, or brain