Schaum's Outlines: Biology (3rd Edition) (Schaum's Outline Series)
George H. Fried, George J. Hademenos
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Schaum's Outlines-Problem Solved.
orbital, the energy difference is accounted for by the emission of quanta from the atom in the form of light. Electrons also possess other properties, such as spin. Fig. 2.1 Atoms interact with one another to form chemical communities. The tightly knit atoms making up the communal molecules are held together by chemical bonding. These bonds result from the tendency of atoms to try to fill their outermost shells. Only the noble gases—inert elements like neon and helium— have completely filled
characteristics of a population. A better understanding of the slow way in which shifts in gene (allele) frequencies may generate the patterns of evolutionary change comes from a study of hypothetical populations in which no such shifts in gene frequencies occur. Using the genetic principles of Mendel, G. H. Hardy and W. Weinberg determined that the frequencies of alleles and even the ratios of genotypes tend to remain constant from one generation to the next in sexually reproducing populations
the enzymes are soluble and are associated with the cell sap rather than assembled along a membranous structure. In the Calvin-Benson cycle, the enzymes are also soluble and are found in the unstructured stroma of the chloroplast. In both processes, an equilibrium between PGA and PGAL is a key to relative rates. Similar steps occur in each process but with a marked difference in terms of the direction of the reaction. 6.9. By the early 1940s, a radioactive isotope of carbon (14C) was made
order to explain in terms of molecular architecture how DNA could encode information, process this information, replicate itself, and even alter its own structure on occasion to produce new message units. Fig. 7.1 The nucleotides Fig. 7.2 Nitrogenous bases Fig. 7.3 Structure of DNA DNA’s Secret is Unraveled: The Double Helix Using the x-ray diffraction photographs of DNA by Rosalind Franklin and the findings of many other investigators, as well as their own brilliant interpretations of the
predators, the physical dangers of the environment, etc. 2. As a result, a competition for survival ensues within each species. 3. The original entrants in the competition are not exactly alike but, rather, tend to vary to a greater or lesser degree. 4. In this contest, those organisms that are better adapted to the environment tend to survive. Those that are less fit tend to die out. The natural environment is the delineating force in this process. 5. The variants that survive and reproduce