Psychological and Political Strategies for Peace Negotiation: A Cognitive Approach
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Peace is one of the most sought after commodities around the world, and as a result, individuals and countries employ a variety of tactics to obtain it. One of the most common practices used to accomplish peace is negotiation. With its elevated role in the dialogue surrounding peace, negotiation is often steeped in politics and focused on managing parties in conflict. However, the art and science of negotiation can and should be viewed more broadly to include a psychological and cognitive approach.
Psychological and Political Strategies for Peace Negotiation gathers the foremost authors in the field and combines their expertise into a volume which addresses the complexity of peace negotiation strategies. To further underscore the importance of successful negotiation strategies, the editors have also included the unique perspective of authors with personal experience with political upheaval in Serbia and Lebanon. Though each chapter focuses on a different topic, they are integrated to create a foundation for future research and practice.
Specific topics included in this volume embrace:
• Changing minds and the multiple intelligence (MI) framework
• Personal schemas in the negotiation process
• Escalation of image in international conflicts
• Representative decision making
• Transformative leadership for peace negotiation
Psychological and Political Strategies for Peace Negotiation is an essential reference for psychologists, negotiators, mediators, and conflict managers, as well as for students and researchers in international, cross-cultural and peace psychology studies.
context, by providing a rough approximation, as follows: Intelligences – How to Change Mind Values – Evolution – Compassion Personal Schemas Emotional Competence Tacit Knowledge Thinking Errors – Decision-making Images of the Conflict – Negative Escalation Communication in Intractable Conflicts Practical Cooperation Between Science and Society Decision-Making – Thrusts – Constraints – Collective Action Negotiating Practice War Experiences Rebuilding Experiences Political Strategies
it’s irrelevant to negotiation. 50 R.L. Leahy In order for you to be effective in negotiating, you need to partly be a team player with the other side. You work together rather than work against each other. This cooperative and “co-constructing” model of negotiation obviates the labeling and marginalization of the other. By understanding the other person’s perspective, one enhances one’s own position in negotiating (Table 3.3). In this new model, the other becomes a source of information,
behaviors as becoming angry and aggressive (Meichenbaum 2002), attempting suicide (Meichenbaum 2006b), and not complying with medical procedures and engaging in treatment non-adherence (Meichenbaum and Fong 1993). In short, I work with varied psychiatric and medical clients to develop a supportive, nonjudgmental, compassionate therapeutic alliance so they can better appreciate how they make decisions that impact their lives and the lives of others. I help them learn how to conduct cognitive,
they operate as pre-perceptions of reality. However, they often reflect an unfair and onesided image that can be very critical and tends to spoil personal relationships. They can trigger a growing hostility among parties. If a counterpart is viewed as tough and tricky, the negotiator will resort to tough tactics to protect him or herself that will elicit tough responses from the other party. Thus, the stereotype will be validated and will lead to self-fulfilling prophecies. These predictions that
cultural dimension of negotiation is reached. A paranoid attitude on the part of the producer of fantasized negative representations may help to feed the whole escalation process. A similarly paranoid stance may be elicited in its counterpart. Each proponent may consider the other a sworn enemy. A kind of obsessive focus is placed on the adversary, and all difficulties are attributed to that party. Paranoid people suffer from permanent anxiety. For instance, they develop an imaginary vision of