Practical English Usage

Practical English Usage

Michael Swan

Language: English

Pages: 658

ISBN: 0194420981

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This unique reference guide addresses problem points in the language as encountered by learners and their teachers. It gives information and advice that is practical, clear, reliable, and easy to find. Most of the book is about grammar, but it also covers selected points of vocabulary, idioms, style, pronunciation, and spelling.

· Over 600 concise, authoritative entries.

· Explanations and examples based on current corpus research.

· Entries on "kinds of English," covering standard English and dialects, correctness, spoken and written English, formality, and variation and change.

Understanding English Grammar: A Linguistic Introduction

Urban Dictionary: Freshest Street Slang Defined (New Edition)

The Elephants of Style : A Trunkload of Tips on the Big Issues and Gray Areas of Contemporary American English

Anglo-Saxon Keywords (Keywords in Literature and Culture)

















also auxiliary verb, modal auxiliary verb, verb phrase. verb phrase a verb that has more than one part. Example: would have been forgotten. vowel the letters a, e, i, 0, u and their combinations, and their usual sounds (see phonetic alphabet, page xxx). See also consonant. weak form see strong form. page xxv Don't say it! 130 common mistakes 35 basic mistakes to avoid. Check in the sections to see why they're wrong. see section don't say/write say/write Look - it rains. It's often raining

number.) - We got talking to some students. (A limited number.) Our next-door neighbours are students. (The main idea is classification, not number.) - I've just bought some books on computing. (Alimited number.) There were books on the desk, on the floor, on the chairs, ... (Alarge number.) page 58 articles (8): talking in general 68 - Would you like some more rice? (An indefinite amount - as much as the listener wants.) We need rice, sugar, eggs, butter, beer, and toilet paper. (The speaker

pronoun, there are two possibilities. Compare: - It is I who am responsible. (formal) It's me that's/who's responsible. (informal) - It is you who are in the wrong. (formal) It's you that's in the wrong. (informal) To avoid being either too formal or too informal in this case, we could say, for example, I'm the person / the one who's responsible. 132 1 close and shut use Close /klauz/ and shut can often be used with the same meaning. Open your mouth and close/shut your eyes. I can't close/shut

nouns after adjectives, noun modifiers and/ or determiners. For details, see 180. Do you want large eggsi r-No, I'll have small. (= small eggs.) My ear isn't working. I'll have to use Mary's. (= Mary's car.) We're going to hear the London Philharmonic tonight. (= ... the London Philharmonic Orchestra.) Which shoes are you going to iuear?-: These. (= These shoes.) 5 at the end of a verb phrase Auxiliary verbs are often used alone instead of full verbs. For details, see 181. I haven't paid. ~I

determiners (e.g. a, the, my, this, that) and pronouns, we use enough of Compare: - I don't know enough French to read this. (NOT ... enough ofTrench ... ) I don't understand enough of the words in the letter. - We haven't got enough blue paint. (NOT ... enough ale-bluepaint.) We haven't got enough of that blue paint. - You didn't buy enough cards. (NOT ... enough ofcartis) You didn't buy enough of them. Note the idiomatic structure I've had enough of .... This can be followed by a noun without a

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