Poverty and the Millennium Development Goals (International Studies in Poverty Research)
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As the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), pass their 2015 deadline and the international community begins to discuss the future of UN development policy, Poverty and the Millennium Development Goals brings together leading economists from both the global North and South to provide a much needed critique of the prevailing development agenda. By examining current development efforts, goals and policies, it exposes the structurally flawed and misleading measurements of poverty and hunger on which these efforts have been based, and which have led official sources to routinely underestimate the scale of world poverty even as the global distribution of wealth becomes ever more imbalanced.
biggest players globally to enter local markets and crowd out small-scale entrepreneurs (Stiglitz 2002); the use of military and police forces to open markets, create lucrative opportunities and protect business interests (Ikelegbe 2005; Johnson 2001; Klein 2008); the cumulative increase of disparities through intergenerational inheritance of wealth (Piketty 2014); the rise of purely financial transactions which result in enormous wealth for those who are successful at this game (Dore 2008;
SDGs also expand by articulating two ambitious goals: ‘promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels’, and ‘strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development’. The SDGs, therefore, extended into the area of governance across levels identifying a number of targets for countries (see Table 4.2). Creating a set of
volume). However, Figure 1.2 shows that developing countries in general, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, are not doing well. In fact, the number of people living in extreme poverty increased noticeably from 287 million in 1990 (baseline) to 416 million in 2011 (iresearch.worldbank. org/PovcalNet/). According to the latest available estimates measuring Goal 1, Target 1A, sub-Saharan Africa will have 403 million people living in extreme poverty when the MDGs are assessed and replaced by a new
precise, effective and operational’ (WTO 2001: para. 44). monte s | 151 Conclusions While developing countries hold primary responsibility for their own development, the fortunes of their economies are now even more severely dependent on structures and events in the international economy. The international system can serve as an obstacle to development in two ways: (1) missing, defective or perverse international institutional arrangements; and (2) restrictions on national policies from an
substantial reduction in acute and other forms of poverty by 2030. A critical analysis of the outcome of the MDG agenda, a probing review of the causalities of poverty and the most effective policy approaches to address it, and a more radical vision of eradicating, rather than merely alleviating, poverty would, in our view, be appropriate as inspiration for the post2015 development agenda. What that new agenda can take from the current MDG discourse, however, is the immense drive and consensus at