Physiology: with STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 5e (Costanzo Physiology)
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Clear, consistent, and user-friendly, the updated edition of Physiology, by renowned physiology instructor Dr. Linda Costanzo, offers a comprehensive overview of core physiologic concepts at the organ system and cellular levels. It presents information in a short, simple, and focused manner, making it an ideal combination textbook and review guide for the USMLE Step 1. You'll grasp all the essential and relevant physiology knowledge you need for absolute success in school and on your exams!
- Build a strong understanding
- Grasp physiology principles with absolute clarity through step-by-step explanations, easy-to-follow diagrams, and a full-color design, in addition to physiology equations and sample problems integrated throughout the text.
- Effortlessly study important points and reinforce your understanding of physiology with the help of chapter summaries and review questions.
- Access the entire contents online at Student Consult, including an image bank, 8 animations, "Ask the Author" section, and FAQs.
of the underlying principles of cellular physiology, the autonomic nervous system, and neurophysiology, as well as the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, acid-base, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive organ systems.\
- Master the latest physiology concepts with expanded coverage on electrochemical driving forces across cell membranes; the cellular mechanisms in smooth muscle; second messengers (including JAK-Stat pathway); the effects of AII, PGs, NSAIDs on RPF, GFR, filtration fraction, and proximal reabsorption; and local reflexes involved in peristalsis.
- Reinforce your understanding of key content with the help of additional questions at the end of each chapter offered in an open-ended, problem-solving format.
these intermolecular forces. Surfactant, which is discussed in a later section, plays a role in hysteresis. Briefly, surfactant is a phospholipid that is produced by type II alveolar cells and functions as a detergent to reduce surface tension and increase lung compliance. During inflation of the lung (inspiration limb), surfactant, which is newly produced by type II alveolar cells, enters the liquid layer lining the alveoli and breaks up these intermolecular forces to reduce surface tension. In
relationship between the partial pressure of a gas and its concentration in solution: For a given partial pressure, the higher the solubility of the gas, the higher the concentration of gas in solution. In solution, only dissolved gas molecules contribute to the partial pressure. In other words, bound gas and chemically modified gas do not contribute to the partial pressure. Of the gases found in inspired air, nitrogen (N2) is the only one that is carried only in dissolved form and it is never
the function of the activation and inactivation gates is shown in Figure 1-14. The basic assumption of this model is that in order for Na+ to move through the channel, both gates on the channel must be open. Recall how these gates respond to depolarization: The activation gate opens quickly, and the inactivation gate closes after a time delay. At rest, the activation gate is closed. Although the inactivation gate is open (because the membrane potential is hyperpolarized), Na+ cannot move
NH4+ As urinary pH decreases, the excretion of H+ as NH4+ increases. The effect of urine pH on the excretion of NH4+ is advantageous: In acidosis, where urine pH tends to be low, there are large quantities of H+ to be excreted. The mechanism underlying the effect of urine pH is based on diffusion trapping of NH3/NH4+. As the pH of urine decreases, more of the urinary buffer is present in the NH4+ form and less is present in the NH3 form. The lower the luminal concentration of NH3, the larger
motor end plate to the EPP? Because the motor end plate must be depolarized from its resting potential of −90 mV to the threshold potential of −50 mV, it must, therefore, depolarize by 40 mV. Depolarization by 40 mV requires 100 quanta (because each quantum or vesicle depolarizes the motor end plate by 0.4 mV). Depolarization of the motor end plate (the EPP) then spreads by local currents to adjacent muscle fibers, which are depolarized to threshold and fire action potentials. Although the