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A clear, comprehensive introduction to disease, Pathophysiology, 5th Edition explores the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of disorders. Units are organized by body system, and each begins with an illustrated review of anatomy and normal physiology. A discussion then follows on the disease processes and abnormalities that may occur, with a focus on the pathophysiologic concepts involved. Written by leading educators Lee-Ellen Copstead and Jacquelyn Banasik, Pathophysiology simplifies a rigorous subject with practical learning resources and includes coverage of the latest scientific findings and relevant research
- 900 full-color illustrations
- Easy-to-read style includes many tables, boxes, and figures to highlight and simplify content.
- Key Questions at the beginning of each chapter highlight key objectives and help you develop and use critical thinking skills.
- Key Points boxes focus on the most important information.
- Geriatric Considerations boxes analyze the age-related changes associated with a specific body system.
- A chapter summary gives you a quick wrap-up of the key content in each chapter.
clarify complex pathophysiological concepts.
- NEW! Pediatric Considerations boxes with accompanying flow charts describe conditions and changes specific to young children.
- NEW! Updated content includes the latest information on new treatment advances, the relationship between stress and inflammation to cardiovascular disease, and much more throughout the text.
- NEW! Global Health Considerations tables include information on HIV/AIDS and depression/anxiety in women.
the development of autoimmune disorders. Gender, which is genetically determined, also influences the expression of autoimmune disorders. The exact mechanisms of gender and genetic influence on autoimmune expression have not been established, but the relationship is significant. Females are at significantly higher risk for developing autoimmunity compared to males. Different cytokine profiles can be associated with autoimmunity. Those with genetically low levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)
inborn errors of interleukin-17 immunity. Science. 2011;332(6025):65–68. 18. Akirav EM, et al. The role of AIRE in human autoimmune disease. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011;7(1):25–33. 19. Moise A, et al. Primary immunodeficiencies of the B lymphocyte. J Med Life. 2010;3(1):60–63. 20. Jorgensen GH, et al. Association of immunoglobulin A deficiency and elevated thyrotropin-receptor autoantibodies in two Nordic countries. Hum Immunol. 2011;72(2):166–172. 21. Martini H, et al. Importance of B cell
synthase) allows protons to flow back into the mitochondria down their electrochemical gradient. The energy of the proton flow is used to drive ATP synthesis (Figure 3-17). Under normal cellular conditions a total of about 30 ATP molecules is formed from the complete oxidation of glucose into CO2 and H2O. Two of these are from glycolysis, two from the citric acid cycle (in the form of GTP), and the remainder from oxidative phosphorylation.15 The ATP formed within the mitochondria is transported
computed tomography (SPECT). These modalities use scintigraphic imaging to view the kidney and can pick up subtle, dynamic changes. Regional differences in GFR, for example, can be detected by PET scan. Ultrasonography Ultrasonography is a noninvasive, painless procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to image renal structures. The sound waves are at a frequency above the limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is used because its short wavelength produces a more detailed picture or image
Nichols FH, Zwelling E, editors: Maternal-newborn nursing: theory and practice, Philadelphia, 1997, Saunders, p 307.) The cell cycle has been the subject of intense study in recent years because of its importance in cancer biology. Cancer cells continue to grow and divide unchecked, despite the lack of appropriate signals to stimulate them. Of particular interest are the events that prod the cell from its dormant state and cause it to begin the cycle. A simplified picture of a major component of