New Digital Media and Learning as an Emerging Area and "Worked Examples" as One Way Forward (The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning)

New Digital Media and Learning as an Emerging Area and "Worked Examples" as One Way Forward (The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning)

James Paul Gee

Language: English

Pages: 92

ISBN: 0262513692

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


In this report, noted scholar James Paul Gee discusses the evolution of digital media and learning (DMAL) from its infancy as an "academic area" into a more organized field or coherent discipline. Distinguishing among academic areas, fields, disciplinary specializations, and thematic disciplines, Gee describes other academic areas that have fallen into these categories or developed into established disciplines. He argues that DMAL will not evolve until a real coherence develops through collaboration and the accumulation of shared knowledge. Gee offers a concrete proposal of one way scholars in DMAL could move the area forward to a more cohesive, integrated, and collaborative enterprise: the production of what he terms "worked examples." In Gee's sense of a worked example, scholars attempting to build the new area of DMAL would publicly display their methods of valuing and thinking about a specific problem, proposing them as examples of "good work" in order to engender debate about what such work in DMAL might come to look like and what shape the area itself might take. The goal would not be for the proposed approach to become the accepted one but for it to become fodder for new work and collaboration. Gee concludes by offering a sample worked example that illustrates his proposal.

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2004; Kress 2003; Knobel and Lankshear 2007; Lankshear 1997; Lankshear and Knobel 2006). Like the NLS, the new literacies studies also argues that 32 New Digital Media and Learning as an Emerging Area the meanings to which these technologies give rise are determined by the social, cultural, historical, and institutional practices of different groups of people. And, as with the NLS, these practices almost always involve more than just using a digital tool; they involve, as well, ways of

2004). Many of these are young people who use the Internet, communication media, digital tools, and membership in often virtual, but sometimes real, communities of practice to develop technical expertise in a plethora of different areas. Some of these areas are digital video, video games, digital storytelling, machinima, fan fiction, history and civilization simulations, music, graphic art, political commentary, robotics, anime, fashion design (e.g., for Sims characters). In fact, there are now

here that a “preparation for future learning” view of transfer would be a good way to go (Bransford and Schwartz 1999). A worked example here, linked to this one, would be important. (i)  Rationale for Why Yu-Gi-Oh! May Be Relevant to Success in School: Worked Example: Yu-Gi-Oh! 61 It is interesting that in outline form these two points are deeply embedded. But I must admit that one of my main goals in using Yu-Gi-Oh! has been to get these two points, common in the literacy literature, onto

Learning as an Emerging Area ­psychology like behaviorism) tended to have little or nothing to say about the mind or cognition. It paid attention only to the social, cultural, historical, and institutional contexts of literacy. It had little to say about the individual apart from the individual’s “membership” in various social and cultural groups. Thus, it also had little to say about learning as an individual phenomenon. Learning was largely treated—if it was treated at all—as changing patterns

of feathers on hard-to-distinguish gulls). Thus, a situated view of the mind leads us to social and cultural groups and their tools and technologies. Both situated ­cognition studies and the NLS point not to the “private mind” but to the world of experience—and that experience is almost always shared in social and cultural groups—as the core of human learning, thinking, problem solving, and literacy (where literacy is defined as “getting and giving meanings using written language”). This was the

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