Longman English Grammar (Grammar Reference)

Longman English Grammar (Grammar Reference)

L. G. Alexander

Language: English

Pages: 374

ISBN: 0582558921

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


This indispensable guide provides explanations and examples for all the important areas of grammar.

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Word Origins

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Smith9 - She s our new next-door neighbour We also use it when we don't know the sex of a baby or child Its a lovely baby Is it a boy or a girl? We refer to an animal as it when the sex is not known or not worth identifying / m fed up with that dog of yours It never stops barking 4.5.6 The first person plural: 'we' (two or more people) We can include the listener or not Let's go shall we9 (including the listener) We re staying here What about you? (not including the listener) We is often used

you write essays In questions, these adverbs usually come after the subject: Do you usually have cream in your coffee? 7.40.2 Adverbs of frequency: negative sentences: mid-position Not must come before always and it commonly comes before generally, normally, often, regularly and usually: Public transport isn't always very reliable We don't usually get up before nine on Sundays The following is also possible with slightly different emphasis: We usually don't get up before 9 on Sundays. Not must

jumped on the stage (which could mean 'jumped up and down on it', or 'jumped once to test its strength') On (indicating destination or location) can also contrast with to (indicating direction) with reference to levels: He's gone to the fourth floor and now he's on the fourth floor Off (= 'not on', indicating separation from a line or surface) combines with movement verbs or position verbs: / took the plate off the table and now it is off the table 8.9.5 'ln(to) and in an area or volume' Into

meanings This is a very large category [> App 33] in which the verb + particle have little or no relation to their literal meanings for example, make up can mean 'invent', as in make up a story, take off can mean 'imitate', as in take off the Prime Minister Verb combinations, therefore, can have many different meanings, depending on the particles used Here are just a few examples of the combinations possible with bring bring up the children (= train/educate) bring off a deal (= complete

auxiliary verb 1 Have + past participle forms simple perfect tenses: e.g. / have He has eaten I had eaten [> 9.1-2] 2 Have + been + present participle forms perfect progressive: e.g. / have/I had been eating [> 9.2] 3 Have + been + past participle forms passives: e.g. It has been eaten [> I2.2n1] She must have been delayed [> 12.2n.2] Questions/negatives with be and have as auxiliary verbs follow the same pattern as those for be as a full verb [> Chapter 13]. Have can function as an auxiliary and

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