Literacy and Development: Ethnographic Perspectives (Literacies)
Brian V. Street
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Literacy and Development is a collection of case studies of literacy projects around the world.
The contributors present their in-depth studies of everyday uses and meanings of literacy and of the literacy programmes that have been developed to enhance them. Arguing that ethnographic research can and should inform literacy policy in developing countries, the book extends current theory and itself contributes to policy making and programme building.
A large cross-section of society is covered, with chapters on Women's literacy in Pakistan, Ghana, and Rural Mali, literacy in village Iran, and an 'Older Peoples' Literacy Project.
This international collection includes case studies from: Peru, Pakistan, India, South Africa, Bangladesh, Mali, Nepal, Iran, Eritrea, Ghana.
research described here. This is neither to condone blindly the central, neutralist position nor to extol a naive romanticism but to propose a less binary and more subtle starting point. Nor is this just a matter of researchers advocating on behalf of the people they study—what Cameron et al. (1992) term ‘research for’. Rather, the people with whom the research described in this volume was conducted make their own judgements of what is really relevant and, as noted above and described at length
moment of betrayal: the site at which I realise the 87 ETHNOGRAPH IC PERSPECTIVES ‘failure’ of dialogue and the closure of re-presentation to be critiqued and acted upon as my limits of ‘knowing’. Practising the action of writing in re-presentation The action of writing readings of others’ self-expressions, as an ethnographer narrating refusals to be the ‘illiterate’ subject, involves the practice of translating and articulating (see Spivak 1988 and 1993) the self-expressions of other people.
closing of a letter. The traditional way of closing a dialogue expresses cultural identity. Individual multilingual literacies: an example In a multilingual situation like that in Ghana, where people have the opportunity of being educated at the tertiary level, a person such as NA, a Deg, practises multilingual literacies. At his teacher training college in Navrongo, a Kasemspeaking area, he learned Kasem and became literate in it. His first teaching job was in an area where people spoke Vagla, a
skills. In this sense it could be regarded as ‘situated’ learning (see Lave and Wenger 1991; Barton et al. 1999). In highlighting the class-specific patterns of literacy use it becomes clear that the ‘universal’ skills advocated in many literacy programmes are based on a model of literacy that is quite different in form and content from the literacy practices of the peasantry. An understanding of the economic uses of literacy may therefore have implications for issues such as the application and
literacy are poorly matched to the diversity of local literacy practices. This chapter presents a case study of literacy environments in two areas within 171 LOCAL LITE RACIES AND DEVELOPMENT AGENDAS a rural Chinese township, Dahu: an outlying farming village and the township market centre. The study compares and contrasts the material and social contexts for reading and writing in the two areas. Drawing primarily from data collected during visits to a hundred households and eight focus group