Industrial Management- Control and Profit: A Technical Approach (Lecture Notes in Management and Industrial Engineering)
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This volume presents controlling tools for management in order to be in a position to communicate with control engineers concerning technological decisions.
The main objective of manufacturing management is to make profit. However, in traditional manufacturing systems none of the separate stages in the process support this objective. Management is not expert in any of these stages and therefore is dependent on specific experts at each stage and must follow their decisions. Each stage has its own first priority which is not profit and cost. This means that management does not have real control over these functional stages, nor over the process as a whole.
This book presents controlling tools for management in order to allow them to communicate better with the experts of the particular manufacturing stages to reach better results and higher profits. It is shown that most enterprises can improve their efficiency rate by between 25 and 60% by using the tools developed here.
1.2.4 Management Control Management should oversee the design from an economic perspective and encourage the designer to check the benefits of using standard items and simple “filler” designs as much as possible. 1.2.5 Safety Factor To avoid failure, the designer must apply mathematical procedures. A good designer will distinguish between the mode of failure and the failure mechanism. To do so, the following procedure will most likely be applied: • • • • • Determine the mode of failure
of strength and stress • The designer is successful in the above steps, but has made a mistake in the calculations or in the manipulation of the model • The designer is willing to accept a small risk To ensure against failure, the designer must provide a margin of safety - the “safety factor”. The safety factor is determined as a ratio of the design strength to the applied load and is always greater than 1. Tables for factors of safety are given in all engineering handbooks. For mechanical
and in selection of a proper machine for the job. If a problem arises, re-evaluation of the parameters will be made and a permanent correction (learning feature for specific machine capability or system) or a temporary correction for a specific fixture will be made. The process will then be re-computed. The importance of correctly determining tolerance and setting in production cannot be over-emphasized. A process plan which cannot guarantee the manufacturing dimensions required by the design
group of designers were given the same problem, they would inevitably produce a variety of designs each one of which would be considered easy for assembly by its maker. A simple example of possible design improvement is demonstrated in Fig. 3.5. The designer’s task was to design a box made to contain a certain amount of volume and a cover. The design in the figure meets the product objective. However, from an assembly point of view, it poses several difficulties. The assembly task includes two
load. Normally, the process planner applies innate knowledge, but, for the same machining requirements, there could be different process alternatives. This means that process planning is more or less an iterative rather than a straight process. The iterations are, however, “lost” when the routine (process plan) arrives at the production management stages. Process planning is also a series of decisions, decisions that must uniquely specify the process, even if they are not mandatory to it. Once