India After Independence 1947-2000

India After Independence 1947-2000

Bipan Chandra

Language: English

Pages: 549

ISBN: 0140278257

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


This volume, a sequel to the best-selling India's Struggle for Independence, analyses the challenges India has faced and the successes it has achieved over the last five decades, in the light of its colonial legacy and the century-long struggle for freedom. The book describes how the Constitution was framed, as also how the Nehruvian political and economic agenda and basics of foreign policy were evolved and developed.

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The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

after strengthening the left trend in the Congress. Implementation of a radical programme would be the result of the Socialists rejoining the Congress but not a condition to be met prior to their rejoining. Nehru was prepared to strengthen the radical forces inside the Congress and not split the party in order to accommodate the Socialists. He was convinced that the Congress and the government had to go step by step towards radical transformation, that he had to build a larger societal consensus

that Lok Sabha would be dissolved and fresh elections to it would be held in October-November. If JP and the Opposition had accepted her offer, the door to a democratic resolution of the political impasse through an appeal to the electorate would have been opened. If they did not, and stuck to their demand for her resignation and their declared methods to bring it about, she could legitimately declare an Internal Emergency as the only viable and available option for meeting their

the exception of sections of the left and some small anti-nuclear groups, welcomed the tests and particularly the achievements of the scientific team led by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and R. Chidambaram, the Chief Scientific Adviser and the head of the Department of Atomic Energy. The opposition leader, Congress president Sonia Gandhi praised the achievement of the scientists and engineers, expressed pride in Congress having kept India’s nuclear capability up-todate and reiterated the commitment of

family. Very few landed families would have holdings that exceeded these liberal limits. Only in some states, where very few holdings exceeded the ceiling limit such as Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab, no allowance was made for the size of the family. Second, a large number of exemptions to the ceiling limits were permitted by most states following the Second Plan recommendations that certain categories of land could be exempted from ceilings. These were tea, coffee

communalism was a fundamental issue of India politics and that it posed the main threat to India’s integrity. ‘If allowed free play’, he wrote in 1951, ‘communalism would break up India.’15 Portraying communalism as ‘the Indian version of fascism’, he said in October 1947: ‘The wave of fascism which is gripping India now is the direct outcome of hatred for the non-Muslims which the Muslim League preached among its followers for years. The League accepted the ideology of fascism from the Nazis of

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