Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications: with STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 4e (Haines,Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications)
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Turn to Fundamental Neuroscience for a thorough, clinically relevant understanding of this complicated subject! Integrated coverage of neuroanatomy, physiology, and pharmacology, with a particular emphasis on systems neurobiology, effectively prepares you for your courses, exams, and beyond.
- Easily comprehend and retain complex material
- Access the complete contents online at www.studentconsult.com, plus 150 USMLE-style review questions, sectional images correlated with the anatomical diagrams within the text, and more.
thanks to the expert instruction of Professor Duane Haines, recipient of the Henry Gray/Elsevier Distinguished Teacher Award from the American Association of Anatomists and the Distinguished Teacher Award from the Association of American Colleges.
- Grasp important anatomical concepts and their clinical applications
- Retain key information and efficiently study for your exams with clinical highlights integrated and emphasized within the text.
thanks to correlated state-of-the-art imaging examples, anatomical diagrams, and histology photos.
smaller and narrower at thoracic than at cervical and lumbar levels. At thoracic levels, the anterior horn contains motor neurons innervating the axial muscles of the trunk, whereas at cervical and lumbar levels, it also contains the more lateral groups of motor neurons that innervate the limbs. Second, within the anterior horn at C4 to T1 and L1 to S2, motor neurons innervating extensors tend to be more anteriorly located in the horn, whereas those innervating flexors tend to be more posteriorly
the medulla, but in the caudal pons it begins to shift to a horizontal position (Fig. 12-13; see also Fig. 12-9). At this level, the anterior part of the medial lemniscus (lumbosacral representation) shifts somewhat laterally, and its posterior portion (cervicothoracic representation) assumes a more medial location. The medial lemniscus forms the border between the tegmentum and basilar pons. Figure 12-13. The orientation of the medial lemniscus at all brainstem levels. The anterior pons
localization and the formation of a neural map of the contralateral auditory hemifield. The medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO), which forms a distinct vertical bar within a diffuse group of periolivary nuclei, is the principal nucleus in the human superior olivary complex (Figs. 21-8B, C and 21-10). The lateral superior olivary nucleus (LSO), located lateral to the MSO, is less distinct. The trapezoid body is a bundle of myelinated fibers passing anterior to the superior olivary complex and
system, through this endocrine pathway, regulates functions of cells that are not directly contacted by nerve terminals. Sympathetic Ganglia Cell bodies of sympathetic postganglionic neurons are generally grouped into discrete ganglia that are located at some distance from the target tissue. Most of them make up the sympathetic chain (paravertebral) ganglia and the prevertebral ganglia associated with the abdominal aorta or its large branches (the celiac, aorticorenal, superior mesenteric,
potential is returned to a more negative value. The three states of the sodium channel—closed, open, and inactive—are the key to our understanding of almost all the known characteristics of the AP. Figure 3-15. In the resting state, the sodium channel has (metaphorically) a closed activation gate and an open inactivation gate. When a neuron is depolarized, positive charges in the channel protein tend to move away from the inner surface of the membrane, which causes a transmembrane path to open