Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM): A Practical Introduction and Survival Guide

Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM): A Practical Introduction and Survival Guide

Oleg S. Pianykh

Language: English

Pages: 417

ISBN: 3642108490

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This is the second edition of a very popular book on DICOM that introduces this complex standard from a very practical point of view. It is aimed at a broad audience of radiologists, clinical administrators, information technologists, medical students, and lecturers. The book provides a gradual, down to earth introduction to DICOM, accompanied by an analysis of the most common problems associated with its implementation. Compared with the first edition, many improvements and additions have been made, based on feedback from readers. Whether you are running a teleradiology project or writing DICOM software, this book will provide you with clear and helpful guidance. It will prepare you for any DICOM projects or problem solving, and assist you in taking full advantage of multifaceted DICOM functionality.

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Element length 56 =12 bytes =26 bytes =10 bytes =10 bytes =10 bytes Fig. 5.6 Doing length math for C-Echo-Request object The total of all four elements following element (0000,0000) is 26 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 56 bytes. Therefore, 56 will be stored as the value of the (0000,0000) element. If there was another group after group 0000, we could have skipped 56 bytes right after the end of the (0000,0000) element and this would have taken us to the next group available. 5.5.4 Encoding DICOM Data

cd/m2 correspond to only 730 JNDs – well below our 1024 shades in an average CT or X-ray image; and 1024 JNDs would require blasting 4000 cd/m2, which is quite likely unbearable to look at. As a result, current 300–400 cd/m2 radiological monitors provide comfortable luminance, but do not get anywhere near the original image grayscale depth. This analysis sets limits to the clear-cut JND theory, which is why more and more institutions try to solve the display “grayscale depth” puzzle from the

modern networking hardware and protocols, which have become the foundation for contemporary DICOM data exchange. In plain words, current DICOM uses the exact same underlying network protocol – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP) – that you use for sending your email or watching online videos (Fig. 7.1). TCP/IP nicely accommodates all hardware and software variations, and delivers the most fundamental network functionality needed: sending information (as a sequence

been nicknamed “DICOM ping” – we will talk about it in a bit. For readers less familiar with IT aspects of this matter: “ping” is a simple command, that one computer can send to another to verify that they are connected on the network. 5 7.2 Services and Data Table 7.1 C-Echo-Rq Message field Command Group Lengtha 125 Tag (0000,0000) VR UL Affected Service Class UID Command Field Message ID (0000,0002) (0000,0100) (0000,0110) UI US US Data Set Type (0000,0800) US Value/description

uses DICOM to acquire and distribute computed tomography images; a DICOM printer to print; a DICOM archive to store and query DICOM data; and so on. One can hardly imagine modern digital medicine without DICOM and PACS. The DICOM standard – conceived over 20 years ago – plays an integral role in the digital medicine evolution, ensuring the highest diagnostic standards and the best performance. DICOM truly shaped the landscape of contemporary medicine by providing: 1. Universal standard of

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