Data Interpretation for Medical Students, Second Edition
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Data Interpretation for Medical Students Second Edition contains subject-based chapters, giving guidance on how to interpret relevant data accompanied by detailed notes on a multitude of conditions. A batch of cases to support learning and demonstrate how the data is applied in practice are provided at the end of each chapter. The Imaging chapter has been completely revamped and clinical cases are illustrated with high quality images. Winner of the 'Student Textbook' award at the BMA Book Awards 2012.
unless wider than 8.0 cm in diameter. Large and small bowel may be distinguished by looking at bowel wall markings. DON’T FORGET The haustra of the large bowel extend only a third of the way across the diameter of the large bowel from each side. The valvulae conniventes of the small bowel traverse the whole diameter. It is usual to see small volumes of gas throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the absence in one region may in itself represent pathology. For example, if gas is seen to
the community with a long period of lost cardiac output, anoxia occurs. This results in the loss of grey–white matter differentiation and cytotoxic oedema. Scenario presenting with neurological deficit Case 9.37 This 66-year-old man gives a 3-hour history of right-sided weakness. Examination confirms a right hemiparesis. 1. Describe the appearances on the head CT. 2. Explain the concept of ‘time is brain’ in the modern management of stroke. Answer 9.37 1. Extensive low attenuation
complex broadening Long Q–T interval Sine-wave-shaped ECG Ventricular dysrhythmias Cardiac arrest rhythms Fig 10.32: T waves in hyperkalaemia. Fig 10.33: T waves in hypokalaemia. Summary When interpreting an ECG, always use the following headings: Heart rate QRS complexes Heart rhythm ST segment Cardiac axis Q–T interval P waves T waves Cardiac arrest rhythms When a patient has a cardiac arrest, the heart stops pumping blood around the body. The electrical activity in the heart does not
everyday clinical medicine. The first edition has been more successful than we could have imagined; however, after 5 years a refresher was much needed. It is our hope that, in some small way, the care of patients will be improved from the use of this text. Acknowledgements We have included material that we feel represents common scenarios and that best illustrates the various investigations in medicine. All material has received intensive feedback during the production process to ensure that
• Renal impairment • Low levels of normal immunoglobulins with resultant infections • Bone involvement, causing bony pain, hypercalcaemia, lytic lesions and problems if bones collapse • Hyperviscosity of the blood. The conditions should be suspected if any of the following abnormalities are present: • Elevated ESR • Hypercalcaemia • Anaemia • Renal impairment • Abnormal M-protein detected on plasma protein electrophoresis • Abnormal quantities of immunoglobulin light chains in