Criminal Justice in Action
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The Eighth Edition of CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN ACTION places you in the center of the action and helps you learn about criminal justice. You'll explore vivid real-life applications that clarify key concepts and read about the many exciting new career opportunities that the field now offers. Chapter material will make sense, thanks to straight-from-the-headlines vignettes that begin every chapter. Knowing what's important is a snap with each chapter's numbered objectives, which are reinforced throughout the chapter.
FBI’s National Crime Information Center (NCIC) provides lists of stolen vehicles and firearms, missing license plates, vehicles used to commit crimes, and other information to local and state law enforcement officers who may access the NCIC database. At the beginning of 2009, the FBI employed about 31,000 people and had a budget of more than $7 billion. Even with these extensive resources, however, critics contended that the agency was underperforming. Much of the criticism focused on weaknesses
reserve forces of the U.S. Army and the U.S. Air Force. Members of these forces also serve their respective states by being “on call” to respond to natural disasters, civil disturbances, and other emergency situations. When National Guard units are acting on the order of their state governor, the Posse Comitatus Act does not apply to their duties.54 So, for example, in 2006 Louisiana governor Kathleen Blanco was able to order about three thousand members of the National Guard into New Orleans to
why crime occurs.66 LO 6 SELF‐CONTROL THEORY Focusing on childhood behavior raises the question of whether conduct problems established at a young age can be changed over time. Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi, whose 1990 publication A General Theory of Crime is one of the foundations of life course criminology, think not.67 Gottfredson and Hirschi believe that criminal behavior is linked to “low self-control,” a personality trait that is formed before a child reaches the age of ten and
Statistics, Criminal Victimization, 2008 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, September 2009), 1. 62. “Experts: Crime Will Go UP As the Economy Sputters,” The Crime Report, at thecrimereport.org/2009/08/11/experts-crime-will-rise-as-theeconomy-sputters. 104 CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN ACTION 63. Quoted in Lubrano. 64. James Alan Fox and Marc L. Swatt, The Recent Surge in Homicides Involving Young Black Males and Guns: Time to Reinvest in Prevention and Crime Control (December 2008), 2,
forefront of the criminal justice system, and this chapter explores the various issues—such as the emergence of private prisons—that have resulted from the prison population boom. ■ The combination of endemic overecrowding of state prisons and serious budget deficits has motivated state officials to find creative ways to reduce inmate populations, as a new section in this chapter makes clear. ■ A new Careers in CJ feature gives Betty Larson the opportunity to tell students how she worked her way