Cognitive Neuroscience (PSY 381 Physiological Psychology)
Marie T. Banich
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This text balances experimental and clinical perspectives with a survey of a variety of mental functions. In a conversational style, the authors provide clear, accessible explanations of difficult concepts, making use of analogies and case studies to illustrate them. A consistent structure throughout each chapter defines a mental function and the role of each part or parts of the brain in that function, followed by a discussion of what neuropsychological syndromes say about the cognitive and neural organization of the mental function.
set amount. The conclusion is that the brain generates an entire plan of action before movement commences rather than creating the plan as actions are being performed (e.g., Sternberg, Monsell, Knoll, & Wright, 1978). As mentioned previously, the regions of the brain that are involved in creating these motor plans lie outside the primary motor cortex. As a brief overview, the supplementary motor complex (SMC) comes up with the motor plan at the most abstract level—that of sequencing the critical
sequence (say turn-pull-and then push a lever, but not turn-push-pull) (Shima & Tanji, 2000) (● Figure 5.17A). Furthermore, some neurons in this area fire specifically to the position in a sequence in which an action occurs (e.g., the second action) regardless of the nature of the actual action itself (e.g., a push, a pull, or a turn) (Clower & Alexander, 1998) (● Figure 5.17B). These findings all point to an important role for the supplementary motor complex in the sequencing of actions.
signals meet up along the delay lines, which in turn tells you which signal got a head start. Now remember that the “head start” represents the interaural time difference, which is a cue to the location of the sound. Logically, then, activity in cells along the delay lines codes for the spatial location of the sound source. Through careful work with animal models such as the barn owl, researchers have determined that such coincidence detectors are present in the superior olivary nucleus (called
you a better sense of how certain brain regions, including the thalamus, act as relay centers, consider an analogy to the distribution of eggs laid by a group of chickens, each of which has a particular roost. In this case, eggs, rather than information, are being relayed from one point to another. Initially, each hen lays a set of eggs in her nest. These eggs are then sent down the conveyor belt toward the processing plant in a systematic order so that eggs laid by hens with roosts next to each
have been used clinically to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Biederman & Spencer, 1999; Biederman et al., 2006). Functioning of the noradrenergic system in the prefrontal cortex has also been linked to working memory. Research in monkeys suggests that noradrenergic functioning of ␣2 receptors in prefrontal cortex aids working memory. This effect is relatively specific: ␣2 receptor agonists Hypothalamus improve performance on working memory tasks that depend on the prefrontal