Characterizing Consciousness: From Cognition to the Clinic? (Research and Perspectives in Neurosciences)

Characterizing Consciousness: From Cognition to the Clinic? (Research and Perspectives in Neurosciences)

Language: English

Pages: 202

ISBN: 3642180140

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


Fifteen of the foremost scientists in this field presented testable theoretical models of consciousness and discussed how our understanding of the role that consciousness plays in our cognitive processes is being refined with some surprising results.

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monetary incentive proportional to the force produced. Handgrip force was thus taken as an indirect measure reflecting incentive motivation. Subjects were given online visual feedback on the force exerted, visualized as a cursor moving up and down, and a cumulative total of the money won at the end of every trial. We used two criteria to select sessions where subjects were not consciously aware of the monetary incentive: objective measure at chance level and subjective measure at zero. In both

of dopamine receptors) are used to reduce hyperkinetic symptoms (motor and vocal tics) in Tourette’s syndrome (TS). We administered our subliminal conditioning paradigm to PD and TS patients while they were taking (‘on state’) Subliminal Motivation of the Human Brain 187 or not taking (‘off state’) their medication (Fig. 1c, right). We found that dopamine enhancers boosted reward learning but impaired punishment learning in PD patients (Palminteri et al. 2009). A mirror double dissociation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Adrian M. Owen Rhythmic Neuronal Synchronization Subserves Selective Attentional Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thilo Womelsdorf and Pascal Fries 109 Studying Consciousness Using Direct Recording from Single Neurons in the Human Brain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

complicated by the presence of motor impairment, tracheotomy, fluctuating arousal level or ambiguous and rapidly habituating responses (Gill-Thwaites 2006). Because of these compromising factors, diagnosis can rapidly become difficult to make. A recent study has shown a misdiagnosis of 41% in patients who were clinically diagnosed as being in a vegetative state (Schnakers et al. 2009a). To improve on this high misdiagnosis rate, we need standardized but also sensitive measures to detect signs of

entities, each controlling their respective half of the body and responding to their half of the sensory world (Gazzaniga 2005). Such phenomena could happen in all our brains with binocular rivalry tasks (Leopold and Logothetis 1996), where different images which are presented to the two eyes yield conflicting percepts. However, in normal subjects this competition is resolved moment to moment to give a single conscious perception, despite its fluctuant nature (Levelt 1965). The actions we project

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