Cardiovascular Physiology 8/E (Lange Medical Books)

Cardiovascular Physiology 8/E (Lange Medical Books)

Language: English

Pages: 304

ISBN: 0071793119

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


The best cardiovascular physiology text for USMLE and exam review

Cardiovascular Physiology is a concise and enjoyable way for you to gain a fundamental knowledge of the basic operating principles of the intact cardiovascular system and how those principles apply to clinical medicine. Succinct but thorough, it focuses on the facts and concepts you must know to get a solid "big picture" overview of how the cardiovascular system operates in normal and abnormal situations. No other text will prove more valuable in enhancing your ability to evaluate the myriad new information you will be exposed to throughout your career, than Cardiovascular Physiology.

FEATURES

  • NEW Includes a "Perspectives" section in each chapter that identifies important unresolved issues
  • Clarifies the details of physiologic mechanisms and their role in pathologic states
  • Links cardiovascular physiology to diagnosis and treatment
  • Summarizes key concepts at the end of each chapter
  • Highlights must-know information with chapter objectives
  • Reinforces learning with study questions at the end of each chapter

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(PVCs), 84f, 87 Primary cardiomyopathy, 212 Prolonged QT intervals, 84f, 87–88 Propranolol, 211 Prostaglandins, 127–128 Pulmonary blood flow, 144–145 Pulmonary circulation, 3–4 Pulmonary embolus, 205 Pulmonic valve, 8 Pulse pressure, 51 Purkinje fibers, 10, 11 R Radionuclide ventriculography, 69 Rapid ejection period, 50 Reabsorption, 99 Reactive/postocclusion hyperemia, 130, 196 Receptor-operated channels, 123 Red blood cells, 16 Reentry phenomenon, 85 Renal blood flow, 142

electrical potential across the membrane that tends to attract it back into the cell. There exists one membrane potential called the potassium equilibrium potential at which the electrical forces tending to pull K+ into the cell exactly balance the concentration forces tending to drive K+ out. When the membrane potential has this value, there is no net movement of K+ across the membrane. With the normal concentrations of approximately 145 mM K+ inside cells and 4 mM K+ in the extracellular fluid,

the end of diastole, is called diastolic pressure. The difference between diastolic and peak systolic pressures in the aorta is called the arterial pulse pressure. Typical values for systolic and diastolic pressures in the aorta are 120 and 80 mmHg, respectively. At a normal resting heart rate of about 70 beats per minute, the heart spends approximately two-thirds of the cardiac cycle in diastole and one-third in systole. When increases in the heart rate occur, both diastolic and systolic

control the frequency of cardiac excitation, the pathway of conduction, and the rate of the impulse propagation through various regions of the heart. The major components of this specialized excitation and conduction system are shown in Figure 1–6. These include the sinoatrial node (SA node), the atrioventricular node (AV node), the bundle of His, and the right and left bundle branches made up of specialized cells called Purkinje fibers. The SA node contains specialized cells that normally

stuffiness, and decreases in calf girth and leg volume. In addition, the increase in central blood volume stimulates the cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors, which influence renal function by neural and hormonal pathways to reduce sympathetic drive and promote fluid loss. The individual begins to lose weight and, within a few days, becomes hypovolemic (by normal earth standards). When the bedridden patient initially tries to stand up (or when the space traveler reenters the earth’s gravitational

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