Cardiovascular Physiology: Mosby Physiology Monograph Series (with Student Consult Online Access), 10e (Mosby's Physiology Monograph)
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Cardiovascular Physiology gives you a solid understanding of how the cardiovascular system functions in both health and disease. Ideal for your systems-based curriculum, this title in the Mosby Physiology Monograph Series explains how the latest concepts apply to real-life clinical situations.
- Get clear, accurate, and up-to-the-minute coverage of the physiology of the cardiovascular system.
- Master the material easily
- Grasp the latest concepts in vascular, molecular, and cellular biology as they apply to cardiovascular function, thanks to molecular commentaries in each chapter.
- Apply information to clinical situations with the aid of clinical commentaries and highlighted clinical vignettes throughout.
- Access the fully searchable text and downloadable images online at www.studentconsult.com!
with objectives at the start of each chapter; self-study questions, summaries, and key words and concepts; and a multiple-choice review exam to help prep for USMLEs.
the flat portion of the current-voltage curve at Vm values between −20 and −80 mV in Figure 2-5. Thus as Vm passes through this range of values less negative than EK, the outward K+ current increases and thereby accelerates repolarization. 24 CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY Restoration of Ionic Concentrations The excess Na+ that entered the cell rapidly during phase 0 and more slowly throughout the action potential is removed from the cell by the action of the enzyme Na+,K+-ATPase. This enzyme
individuals. The duration is usually between 0.06 and 0.10 s. Abnormal prolongation may indicate a block in the normal conduction pathways through the ventricles (such as a block of the left or right bundle branch). During the ST interval the entire ventricular myocardium is depolarized and there is negligible potential difference in the ventricle. Therefore the ST segment lies on the isoelectric line, under normal conditions. Any appreciable deviation from the isoelectric line is noteworthy and
stimulatory (αs) components of guanine nucleotide–binding proteins transduce the neurotransmitter signals to adenylyl cyclase (AC) to regulate synthesis of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). ATP, adenosine triphosphate; βγ, βγ subunit of G protein; NPY, neuropeptide Y. (Modified from Levy MN: in Kulbertus HE, Franck NPY G, editors: Neurocardiology, Mt Kisco, NY, 1988, Futura.) (Ϫ) Heart rate (beats/min) Left ventricular systolic pressure (mm Hg) ␤␥ ␣s ϩ ATP AC cAMP Ϫ Response ␣i M
maximal rates of intraventricular pressure rise and fall (dP/dt). (From Levy MN: Unpublished tracing.) 0 dP/dt + 0 – 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Time (s) Left stellate ganglion stimulation Aortic pressure (mm Hg) Control 250 FIGURE 5-29 n Stimulation of the left stellate ganglion of 200 a dog increases arterial pressure, stroke volume, and stroke work despite a concomitant reduction in ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Systole is also abbreviated, thereby
transcription factors. Increased activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca++ATPase and of Na+,K+-ATPase are among these genomic effects. The rates of Ca++ uptake and of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis by the sarcoplasmic reticulum are increased in response to thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism). Expressions of α-myosin heavy chain with high ATPase activity and of β-adrenergic receptor are also greater and contribute to the higher rate and greater contractility of the heartbeat. Systemically,