BIOS Instant Notes in Neuroscience

BIOS Instant Notes in Neuroscience

Alan Longstaff

Language: English

Pages: 392

ISBN: 0415607698

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

BIOS Instant Notes in Neuroscience, Third Edition, is the perfect text for undergraduates looking for a concise introduction to the subject, or a study guide to use before examinations. Each topic begins with a summary of essential facts-an ideal revision checklist-followed by a description of the subject that focuses on core information, with clear, simple diagrams that are easy for students to understand and recall in essays and exams.

BIOS Instant Notes in Neuroscience, Third Edition, is fully up-to-date and covers:

  • Organization of the Nervous System
  • Neuron Excitation
  • Synapses
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Elements of Neural Computing
  • Somatosensory Systems
  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Smell and Taste
  • Motor Function: Spinal Cord and Brainstem
  • Movement: Cortex, Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia
  • Neuroendocrinology and Autonomic Functions
  • Brain and Behaviour
  • Learning and Memory
  • Neuroscience Methods

Welcome to Your Brain: Why You Lose Your Car Keys but Never Forget How to Drive and Other Puzzles of Everyday Life

A Mind of Its Own: How Your Brain Distorts and Deceives

Manifestations of Stroke (Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience, Volume 30)

Exploring Happiness: From Aristotle to Brain Science

Neuroscience and Philosophy: Brain, Mind, and Language













neuroscience attempts to provide a mechanistic account of the most complex ‘device’ in the known universe, the human brain. It is an extraordinary endeavor because it aims to reveal what, in essence, it is to be human; how we behave, think and feel as we do. At the moment we are a long way from being able to give a coherent account of any of these faculties; that there is so much still to be done is one reason that this science is so exciting. This book is an account of the remarkable progress

spherical aberration (a defect of lenses in which parallel rays of light are not brought to focus at the same point); this improves acuity when looking at near objects. Pupil constriction in this instance is mediated by a pathway from the primary visual cortex to the pretectum. The Argyll–Robertson pupil fails to constrict in response to the light reflex, but will constrict during accommodation and convergence. It results from damage to the light reflex pathway in the region of the tectum or

on the light intensity. At high light levels rods are saturated, and only cones operate. In the partially dark-adapted eye (e.g. at dusk) rod cells come on stream but signal through gap junctions to neighboring cones. This effectively augments cone cell function so maintaining acuity and color vision (mesopic vision). However, when it is very dark (e.g. moonless night sky) cone cells fail even with signal boosting from rods. Rod cells in the dark will have a greater influx of Ca2+ via the dark

P system are sufficiently slow that they are unaffected by the shifting image. Where and what streams Parallel processing beyond V5 and V4 results from the segregation of information into two streams. The dorsal stream, largely from MT, goes to the medial superior temporal (MST) and posterior parietal (PP) cortex. Cells in the PP cortex have large RFs, show selectivity for size and orientation of objects and fire as a monkey makes hand movements to grasp an object. Many cells show gaze-dependent

control Smooth pursuit movements Vergence Related topics 185 These are used to voluntarily track an object that is moving in the visual field. The velocity of the object is signaled by the cortex of the visual ‘where’ system to neurons in the pons. These cells convert the velocity signals to smooth pursuit motor commands. Signals for vergence include blurring of the retinal image or the degree of accommodation and require the visual cortex. Fast vergence movements are made during saccades.

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