Biology and Anatomy & Physiology Helps: Blood
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
The Biology and Anatomy & Physiology Helps series is designed to provide a review of the objectives and vocabulary covered by many instructors. This series is in note-like format to supplement any student study guide on the topic covered, and provides a self test at the end of each text to help with material review. Intended as an aid for research projects, advanced homeschoolers, AP high school students and college students in nursing, pre-med, pre-vet, biology, zoology and biochemistry.
The Biology and Anatomy & Physiology Helps series is designed to act as a lesson supplements. This text is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of the materials covered without a full Biology or Anatomy & Physiology curriculum to back it up.
The Biology and Anatomy & Physiology Helps series also provides note taking tips as an aid to the student to further develop classroom and study skills.
This volume covers Blood.
Table of Contents
Note Taking Helps
Composition of Blood
Physical Characteristics of the Blood
Functions of the Blood
Composition and Function of Plasma
Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells
Leukocytes or White Blood Cells
Platelet Structure and Function
Disorders of the Formed Elements
Blood Groups and Tests
Resources and References
complex transferrin is taken up by forming RBCs reticulocyte an immature RBC without a nucleus having reticulated or granular appearance contains reticulum or a network of clumped ribosomes destruction of erythrocytes RBC life span is ~120 days because anucleate, RBCs cannot synthesize new proteins, grow or divide become more fragile with age hemoglobin degenerates with age inside the small capillaries of the spleen, old RBC become trapped and fragment macrophages engulf and destroy
blood lymphoid stem cells - produce lymphocytes only myeloid stem cells - produce all other formed elements granular leukocytes and monocytes develop from myeloblasts Platelet Structure and Function structure platelets are not cells but anucleate cell fragments arise from extraordinarily large cells called megakaryocytes megakaryocytes arise from hemocytoblasts that experience repeated mitosis without cytokinesis thrombopoietin -a hormone that regulates the formation of platelets
bleeding, yielding a slight but persistent blood loss (ex. bleeding ulcer) treatment -once source of blood loss is located and resolved, red blood cell numbers are restored by the body naturally sickle-cell anemia results from abnormal hemoglobin (1 of the 146 amino acids in the beta chain is changed) yielding protein chains to link in low oxygen conditions forming "C" or sickle shapes can damn up small blood vessels leading to reduced oxygen delivery and extreme pain most common in people
based on the presence or absence of 2 agglutinogens (substance that stimulate the production of antibody) type A type B the O group contains neither agglutinogen the groups are immunologically and genetically distinct have spontaneously appearing antibodies type A having antibodies to type B type B having antibodies to type A type O having antibodies to both types A and B Rh blood groups also called Rh factor or Rhesus factor genetically determined antigens present on the surface of
positive - = negative = = equals > = greater than < = less than ex = example excp = exception ⇒ or ➝ = yields Biology Helps: NZ = enzyme NG = energy O₂ = oxygen CO₂ = carbon dioxide C = carbon Fe = iron AA = amino acid H₂O = water CT = connective tissue RBC = red blood cell WBC = white blood cell Hb = hemoglobin ♀ = female ♂ = male 1˚ = primary 2˚ = secondary 3˚ = tertiary 4˚ = quaternary temp = temperature Composition of Blood Blood is the red liquid circulating in