Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade
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This book offers a clear description of all the balsamic vinegars and/or similar products produced in the world, their differences in composition, quality and use. This encompasses all the steps for the production of Traditional Balsamic Vinegar: grape composition, crushing, concentration of the must, alcoholic and acetic fermentation, ageing, sensorial properties and quality of the final product. This book covers extensively all the balsamic vinegars, especially the industrial ones that have a really large market and diffusion.
after the Napoleonic Wars and began to spread abroad after the second half of the nineteenth century (Simpson 2003; Bonin 2002). It is therefore possible that this maturing system spread from Spain to Italy during the Cisalpine Republic, a French client republic founded by Napoleon Bonaparte in northern Italy, and which lasted from 1797 to 1802, mediated by the French oenological culture. Further historical research in this area would be very helpful to establish whether the rincalzo and solera
during winemaking and aging. Am J Enol Viticult 57:289–297 Gogus F, Bozkurt H, Eren S (1998) Kinetics of Maillard reaction between the major sugars and amino acids of boiled grape juice. Lebensm Wiss Technol 31:196–200CrossRef Grover DW (1968) The measurement and character of caramel colour. J Food Technol 3:311–323CrossRef Gullo M, Verzelloni E, Canonico M (2014) Aerobic submerged fermentation by acetic acid bacteria for vinegar production: process and biotechnological aspects. Process
marked decrease in acidity at the end of ripening. In some cases, the measured values are too low and not compatible with the production of balsamic vinegar. In the opinion of the authors and based on data on TBV composition and sensory analysis, the following values for the composition of grapes are recommended:Titratable acidity greater than 7.5 (expressed in g/l of tartaric acid) pH less than 3.2 Sugar content greater than 16°Bx Sugar/acidity ratio between 1.2 and 2.5 The sugar/acidity
and Pattaraporn 2008), but the majority of species detected in vinegars belong only to the Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter genera (Gullo et al. 2006). However, this outline is not definitive because other species and genera involved in vinegar production are probably yet to be described. Furthermore, the AAB taxonomy is under extensive revision and the species and genera will soon be reorganised. Fermentation can be induced either as spontaneous fermentation, by back-slopping, or by addition
occurs during the maturation stage, when the increasing loss of water favours condensation reactions. The IR spectra of high-molecular weight fractions share many absorption bands with the spectra of the residual fraction (Ax_F), which is low molecular weight (<3 kDa), mainly constituted by monosaccharides. Figure 6.13 shows the absorption spectra of the sample A3, in particular, the low-molecular weight fraction (A3_F) and the high-molecular weight fraction (A3_10k) exposed to heating up to