After Cognitivism: A Reassessment of Cognitive Science and Philosophy
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There is a basic perplexity in our times. On the one hand, we ?nd a blind trust in technology and rationalism. In our neo-liberalistically dominated world only what can be rapidly exploited and commercialized seems to count. The only opposing reaction to this kind of rationalism is an extreme rejection of all kinds of reasoning, and sometimes attendant religious fundamentalism. But instead of re?ecting on the limits and possibilites of reasoning, dialogue is replaced by a demagogic struggle between cultures. One cause of the blind trust in technology is misunderstandings about the sign- cance and the application of theories in the reception of the so-called Enlightenment. The Enlightenment is essentially characterized by two forces: (i) the conception of society as a social contract and (ii) the new science (New- nian physics, etc.). But as a result we lost ground: Atomistic individualism nourished the illusion of a self-contained ego prior to man’s entering into a shared inter-subjective world. And in the new science, our constructions of reality became autonomous and indep- dent of our interventions. Thus we became caught in the inherent dynamism of our computational constructions of reality. Science, as it is applied today, operates with far too simple parameters and model-theoretic constructions – erroneously taking the latter (the models) as literal descriptions of reality.
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appropriately set to respond to the specific thing we are encountering within that field. For Todes, then, perceptual receptivity is an embodied, normative, skilled accomplishment, in response to our need to orient ourselves in the world. Clearly, this is a kind of holistic background coping that is not done for a reason. 54 H.L. Dreyfus an organism, animal or human, interacts with what is objectively speaking the meaningless physical universe in such a way as to cope with an environment
to demonstrate why they matter. From MUDs to MMOGs In 1979, Roy Trubshaw and Richard Bartle created an online world called MUD, the first multi-user adventure game accessible online. The game was enormously popular and was eventually licensed to CompuServe where it ran until 1999. The idea behind the first MUD, which has spawned hundreds of other similar games, was to provide a virtual environment where players used text to create and describe the world they inhabited. The virtual worlds were
problem only an interpretation Reading the World Upside Down: How to Deal with Frozen Knowledge 127 of Heidegger because he himself does not face this problem directly. But let me start with a more vivid example. In a painting of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Adam points his finger at God and God at Adam. Their fingertips, however, do not touch each other. Why? The reason is because their touching would demask God’s transcendence in its inscrutable mystery. In a religious understanding
more generally, “procedures of constructing a theoretical scheme. Such a construction is done as interaction between foundations of the science, mathematical apparatus, empirical and theoretical material generalized in the theory” (ibid., 265). This applies to the “procedures and operations of generating new hypotheses (foundations of the science-analog model – substitution of new abstract objects into this model” – even the necessary and basic “combination of abstract objects from one field of