A Dictionary of Linguistics
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Mid-Century Reference Library.
petroglyph: A primitive pictogram carved into rocks. petrogram: A primitive pictogram painted or drawn on rocks. Peul: See Fula. phantom word: A word that came into being through an error of a lexicographer or printer. pharyngal: In phonetical terminology, a consonant phonated at the pharynx. phememe: A rarely used cover term for the smallest lexical and/or grammatical unit. Lexically, it is the phoneme, grammatically the taxeme (qq.v.). phenomenon word: A word, usually an adjective,
creation (q.v.). proportional opposition: The relationship of sets of phonemes to each other: p:b = t:d = k:g; f:v = θ: = s:z = etc., where more than one set has the same relevant feature. proposition: A declarative sentence; in general, any complete utterance or assertion. Also, the content of meaning of such a sentence, utterance or assertion. prose: Language as used in writing and speaking, without observance of rhythm, meter, stanzaic pattern and the other distinctive features of poetry.
prosecutive: A declensional case in certain languages (e.g., in Yukagir), having the same denotation as conveyed in English by the preposition along. prosodeme: The minimal unit of prosodic feature serving a phonemic purpose. Also called supra-segmental phoneme, and secondary phoneme. prosodic features: Those phonemic features which are tied, not to individual phonemes, but to larger units (the syllable) or to smaller units (the mora—q.v.). prosody: The science and art of versification and of
concepts to which they refer—and with the history and changes in the meanings of words. semasiography: A term (literally, meaning-writing) used by I. J. Gelb to designate all pictorial, ideographic and logographic systems of writing in general. semasiology: An alternative name for semantics (q.v.). sematology: The science of meaning—an alternative term for semantics (q.v.). semeiology: See semiology. sememe: Any one particular element of the semantic significance of a given word; the meaning
Bulgarian) which is extinct as a vernacular but exists as a liturgical language. Southern American English: The dialectal variant of American English used, generally, south of the Mason-Dixon line and as far west as Texas. Southern Turkic: A language-group, a subdivision of the Turkic branch of the Altaic (or Turco-Tartaric) sub-family of the Ural-Altaic family of languages. It comprises Osmanli (Turkish), Azerbaidjani, Anatolian, Balkar, Kumik and Turkoman. Southern West Semitic: A